By Rabbi Tzvi Hersh Weinreb
Bamidbar is the Torah portion which we read this week, and which is always read on the Shabbat before Shavuot. I researched about a dozen biblical translations, including some non-Jewish ones, and found that only a few translated “Bamidbar” as “in the desert”. The vast majority preferred the word “wilderness” to “desert,” so that the key phrase in the first verse of our parsha reads “…The Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai …”
Although the dictionaries I consulted did not distinguish sharply between “desert” and “wilderness,” it is the latter that rings true: An empty, confusing, and frightening wasteland. It was in that wasteland that our ancestors wandered for 40 years, and it is that wasteland where we received the Torah.
Why? Why was the Torah given in this wild and chaotic terrain?
Like most questions of this sort, numerous answers have been given over the ages. I would like to share with you an answer that makes great sense to me.
If one reads further than just the first verse of this week’s parsha (Numbers 1:1-4:20), he or she discovers that although the image we have of the wilderness is one of disorder and confusion, the narrative theme of these several opening chapters is one of order and systematic organization. The tribes are divided into 12 distinct units, each one is assigned its own unique flag or banner, and its place in the procession through the wilderness is precisely specified. The entire parsha can be summarized as “making order in the midst of chaos.”
It strikes me that the ability to organize one’s environment in a beneficial and orderly manner is a basic human skill that every society must first possess before it can proceed toward greater cultural achievement. Having said that, we can appreciate that before the Torah could be given to the Jewish people there was a necessary prerequisite: the establishment of a functional society in which people could get along with each other in a peaceful and productive manner. Only in such a context could the Torah be properly absorbed.
There is an ancient saying which states this idea unequivocally: “Derech eretz kadma leTorah,” literally translated as, “The way of the world precedes Torah” (Midrash Vayikra Rabba, 9:3). More generally, it means first one must have an ethical, just and humane society. Only then can one proceed to Torah.
We can classify this week’s Torah portion as the parsha of derech eretz, because in it a nation successfully copes with the trials and tribulations of its environment. It tamed a wilderness by creating a civilization. It dealt with a wasteland by establishing a functioning and equitable society.
That is why it is precisely this parsha that precedes Shavuot. Shavuot is the anniversary of Matan Torah, of the Divine revelation, the giving of the Torah. The Almighty does not reveal Himself to a people who cannot get along with each other in an orderly and civilized manner. He does not express His will to individuals, communities, or nations who, in today’s jargon, “can’t get their act together.”
He does not give His Torah in a wilderness, in a wasteland, in a “veesternisht.” He expects us to first act toward each other with derech eretz, respectfully and courteously. He demands that we first tame that wilderness and cultivate that wasteland. Only then are we deserving of His great gift.
Derech eretz kadma leTorah. Humane behavior first, and only afterwards the Torah. That’s how it was that very first time in the wilderness of Sinai, and that’s how it must be this weekend, when the Shabbat of Bamidbar immediately precedes the festival of Matan Torah.
Rabbi Tzvi Hersh Weinreb is executive vice president, emeritus of the Orthodox Union. His book, Person in the Parasha: Discovering the Human Element In the Weekly Torah Portion is co-published by OU Press and Maggid Books.